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Mindfulness Therapy May Help Veterans With Combat-Related PTSD

Mindfulness exercises that include meditation, stretching, and acceptance of thoughts and emotions may help veterans with combat-related PTSD find relief from their symptoms.

A new collaborative study from the University of Michigan (U-M) Health System and the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System shows that veterans with PTSD who completed an eight-week mindfulness-based group treatment plan showed a significant reduction in symptoms compared with patients who underwent treatment as normal.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy combines the practice of cognitive therapy with the meditative approach of mindfulness that emphasizes an increased awareness of all thoughts and emotions.

Previous research has shown stress-reduction classes that use mindfulness meditation have been beneficial for people with a history of trauma exposure, including veterans, civilians with war-related trauma, and adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse. But the new study is the first to examine the effect of mindfulness-based psychotherapy for PTSD with veterans in a PTSD clinic.

“The results of our trial are encouraging for veterans trying to find help for PTSD,” says Anthony P. King, PhD, the study’s lead author and a research assistant professor in the U-M psychiatry department. “Mindfulness techniques seemed to lead to a reduction in symptoms and might be a potentially effective novel therapeutic approach to PTSD and trauma-related conditions.”

Veterans in the mindfulness treatment groups were part of in-class exercises such as mindful eating in which they focused on sensations associated with eating very slowly; body scanning, an exercise where patients focus on physical sensations in individual parts of the body, paying special attention to pain and tension; mindful movement and stretching; and mindfulness meditation, including focusing on the breath and emotions. The participants also were instructed to practice mindfulness at home through audio-recorded exercises and during the day while doing activities such as walking, eating, and showering.

After eight weeks of treatment, 73% of patients in the mindfulness group displayed meaningful improvement compared with 33% in the usual treatment groups.

King says the most noticeable area of improvement for patients in the mindfulness group was a reduction in avoidance symptoms. One of the main tenets of mindfulness therapy is a sustained focus on thoughts and memories, even ones that may be unpleasant.

“Part of the psychological process of PTSD often includes avoidance and suppression of painful emotions and memories, which allows symptoms of the disorder to continue,” King says. “Through the mindfulness intervention, however, we found that many of our patients were able to stop this pattern of avoidance and see an improvement in their symptoms.”

Mindfulness techniques also emphasize focus and attention to positive experiences and nonjudgmental acceptance to one’s thoughts and emotions. Because of this, the researchers found that the patients in the mindfulness group experienced a decrease in feelings of self-blame and a trend toward decreased perception of the world as a dangerous place.

King says the results of this pilot study are encouraging, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to fully explore the breadth of mindfulness intervention benefits. He adds that the research group currently is conducting a larger study including military veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

“Further studies will help us understand whether mindfulness training is more aptly considered an adjunct option to gold-standard trauma-focused treatments such as prolonged exposure or EMDR [eye movement desensitization and reprocessing] or whether it can function as an intervention in its own right for treating avoidance and other symptoms,” he says. “Either way, mindfulness-based therapies provide a strategy that encourages active engagement for participants, are easy to learn, and appear to have significant benefits for veterans with PTSD.”

— Source: University of Michigan Health System